Research Reports - The trajectories of overall disability in the first 5 years after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury

Brain Inj. 2017 Jan 17:1-7. doi: 10.1080/02699052.2016.1255778. [Epub ahead of
print]

Forslund MV(1), Roe C(1,)(2), Perrin PB(3), Sigurdardottir S(4,)(5), Lu J(6),
Berntsen S(7), Andelic N(1,)(4).

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To assess longitudinal trajectories of overall disability
after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to examine whether
those trajectories could be predicted by socio-demographic and injury
characteristics.
METHODS: Demographics and injury characteristics of 105 individuals with
moderate-to-severe TBI were extracted from medical records. At the 1-, 2-, and
5-year follow-ups, TBI-related disability was assessed by the GOSE. A
hierarchical linear model (HLM) was used to examine functional outcomes up to 5
years following injury and whether those outcomes could be predicted by: time,
gender, age, relationship, education, employment pre-injury, occupation, GCS,
cause of injury, length of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), CT findings and injury
severity score, as well as the interactions between each of these predictors and
time.
RESULTS: Higher GOSE trajectories (lower disability) were predicted by younger
age at injury and shorter PTA, as well as by the interaction terms of time*PTA
and time*employment. Those who had been employed at injury decreased in
disability over time, while those who had been unemployed increased in
disability.
CONCLUSION: The study results support the view that individual factors generally
outweigh injury-related factors as predictors of disability after TBI, except for
PTA. 

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