Research Reports - Depression in children and adolescents in the first 6 months after traumatic brain injury
Int J Dev Neurosci. 2012 May;30(3):239-45.
Max JE, Keatley E, Wilde EA, Bigler ED, Schachar RJ, Saunders AE, Ewing-Cobbs L, Chapman SB, Dennis M, Yang TT, Levin HS.
The objective was to assess the nature, rate, predictive factors, and
neuroimaging correlates of novel (new-onset) depressive disorders, both definite
and subclinical, after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children with TBI from
consecutive admissions were enrolled and studied with psychiatric interviews soon
after injury (baseline), and again 6 months post-injury. Novel
definite/subclinical depressive disorders at 6-month follow up occurred in 11%
(n=15) of the children and subsets of children with non-anxious depression (n=9)
and anxious depression (n=6) were identified. Novel definite/subclinical
depressive disorder was significantly associated with older age at the time of
injury, family history of anxiety disorder, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)
lesions, and right frontal white matter lesions. Non-anxious depressions were
associated with older age at injury, left IFG and left temporal pole lesions.
Anxious depressions were associated with family history of anxiety disorder,
Personality Change due to TBI, right frontal white matter lesions, and left
parietal lesions. These findings, which are similar to those reported after adult
TBI, identify both similarities and differences in non-anxious and anxious
depression following childhood TBI with respect to lesion laterality, genetic
factors (in the form of family psychiatric history of anxiety disorder), age at
injury, and more generalized affective dysregulation.