Research Reports - Association between posttraumatic stress, depression, and functional impairments in adolescents 24 months after traumatic brain injury

J Trauma Stress. 2012 Jun;25(3):264-71

O'Connor SS, Zatzick DF, Wang J, Temkin N, Koepsell TD, Jaffe KM, Durbin D, Vavilala MS, Dorsch A, Rivara FP

The degree to which postinjury posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or
depressive symptoms in adolescents are associated with cognitive and functional
impairments at 12 and 24 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not yet
known. The current study used a prospective cohort design, with baseline
assessment and 3-, 12-, and 24-month followup, and recruited a cohort of 228
adolescents ages 14-17 years who sustained either a TBI (n = 189) or an isolated
arm injury (n = 39). Linear mixed-effects regression was used to assess
differences in depressive and PTSD symptoms between TBI and arm-injured patients
and to assess the association between 3-month PTSD and depressive symptoms and
cognitive and functional outcomes. Results indicated that patients who sustained
a mild TBI without intracranial hemorrhage reported significantly worse PTSD
(Hedges g = 0.49, p = .01; Model R(2) = .38) symptoms across time as compared to
the arm injured control group. Greater levels of PTSD symptoms were associated
with poorer school (η(2) = .07, p = .03; Model R(2) = .36) and physical (η(2) =
.11, p = .01; Model R(2) = .23) functioning, whereas greater depressive symptoms
were associated with poorer school (η(2) = .06, p = .05; Model R(2) = .39)
functioning.

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