Research Reports - The experience, expression, and control of anger following traumatic brain injury
J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015 Jan-Feb;30(1):12-20
Bailie JM(1), Cole WR, Ivins B, Boyd C, Lewis S, Neff J, Schwab K
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the
experience and expression of anger in a military sample.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 661 military personnel with a history of TBI and 1204
military personnel with no history of TBI.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional, between-group design, using multivariate analysis of
MAIN MEASURE: State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2).
RESULTS: Participants with a history of TBI had higher scores on the STAXI-2 than
controls and were 2 to 3 times more likely than the participants in the control
group to have at least 1 clinically significant elevation on the STAXI-2. Results
suggested that greater time since injury (ie, months between TBI and assessment)
was associated with lower scores on the STAXI-2 State Anger scale.
CONCLUSION: Although the results do not take into account confounding psychiatric
conditions and cannot address causality, they suggest that a history of TBI
increases the risk of problems with the experience, expression, and control of
anger. This bolsters the need for proper assessment of anger when evaluating TBI
in a military cohort.