Research Reports - Predicting long-term outcome following traumatic brain injury
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2015 Apr 1:1-13
Rassovsky Y(1), Levi Y, Agranov E, Sela-Kaufman M, Sverdlik A, Vakil E
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of brain damage,
resulting in long-term disability. The ever increasing life expectancies among
TBI patients necessitate a critical examination of the factors that influence
long-term outcome. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of premorbid
factors (which were identified in our previous work) and acute injury indices to
long-term functioning following TBI.
METHOD: Eighty-nine participants with moderate-to-severe TBI were evaluated at an
average of 14.2 years postinjury (range: 1-53 years) with neuropsychological
battery, medical examination, clinical interviews, and questionnaires.
RESULTS: TBI severity predicted cognitive, social, and daily functioning
outcomes. After controlling for injury severity, preinjury intellectual
functioning predicted cognitive status, as well as occupational, social,
emotional, and daily functioning. Preinjury leisure activity also predicted
cognitive, emotional, and daily functioning, whereas socioeconomic status failed
to predict any of these variables.
CONCLUSION: Findings offer further support for the cognitive reserve construct in
explaining significant variance in TBI outcome, over and above the variance
explained by injury severity.