Research Reports - Global outcome trajectories after TBI among survivors and nonsurvivors
J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015 Jul-Aug;30(4):E1-E10. doi:
Dams-OʼConnor K(1), Pretz C, Billah T, Hammond FM, Harrison-Felix C.
OBJECTIVE: To compare long-term functional outcome trajectories of individuals
with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who survive with those who expire more than 5
years postinjury, using individual growth curve analysis.
DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from a multicenter longitudinal cohort study.
SETTING: Acute inpatient rehabilitation facilities that are current or former TBI
PARTICIPANTS: Individuals 16 years and older with a primary diagnosis of TBI.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended; Disability Rating Scale.
RESULTS: Individuals in the TBI Model Systems who expire several years after
injury demonstrate worse functional status at baseline and a steeper rate of
decline over time as measured by both the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended and the
Disability Rating Scale. There was significant variability in each growth
parameter (P < .05) for both instruments. A reduced model was built for each
outcome, including all covariates that related significantly to the growth
parameters. An interactive tool was created for each outcome to generate
individual-level trajectories based on various combinations of covariate values.
CONCLUSION: Individuals with TBI who die several years after injury demonstrate
functional trajectories that differ markedly from those of survivors.
Opportunities should be sought for health management interventions to improve
health and longevity after TBI.